Work with the prospective client to flesh out the shoot requirements, initially by email and eventually by phone. For very complicated shoots, onsite visits to site may be necessary before properly estimating the job.
If the equipment requirements needed for the shoot are extensive or the shots are somewhat complex, I may budget for a photo assistant, or for very large jobs, a crew. For jobs where I just need another body to hold a reflector or a light, I tell clients if they want to bring a friend and have them be my photo assistant to save on cost, that's fine with me.
Once I have enough information about what is required to deliver what the client wants, I submit a formal estimate.
If the prospective client approves the estimate, we continue refining the requirements and schedule the shoot date(s).
If I have not already scouted the location(s), I do that in advance of the shoot to review potential camera angles and lighting issues and to determine if there are any issues that may impact the location, etc.
For certain types of shoots, mainly where the camera position is static, I shoot connected to a laptop and enable the client to review the images in real time on my 15" MacBook Pro screen. For shoots where the camera will be moved around, the client generally will not see previews (beyond occasional back of the camera looks) until I submit proofs.
If I need to bring a significant amount of equipment, there may be equipment setup and breakdown time involved per location. This is accounted for in the estimate.
I typically shoot with a Canon 1DX Mark II and Canon 5D Mark IV, Canon's top of the line cameras, with various Canon "L" lenses.
After the shoot, I download the images onto multiple drives then cull the images and post-process the selections for client review.
I do not show the client every photo. I throw away more than I keep. My goal is to show the client only the strongest photos and not waste their times with average ones that we took along the way.
I apply basic edits (color correction, simple blemish removal, skin softening as needed for us older folks) during post-production. Complex edits (e.g., move various heads from different photos and composite them into one photo) are not part of the original estimate, and I'll submit an additional cost estimate for any out of scope editing before proceeding.
Clients will review the photos online in a web browser and mark which ones they want, and as applicable, which ones they may want more retouching done on.
Digital images are included in the basic fee. Prints may or may not be, depending on how the client wanted to handle prints, something we discuss leading up to the estimate.
If the client is unhappy with the photos because of poor performance on my part, I will offer them a free re-shoot, or not charge them (provided they don't use any of the photos they've rejected). I've never had anyone take me up on that offer, but I do put it out there.